公共卫生的重点是预防疾病和人类生活的整体改善。 Research makes it clear that the importance of public health cannot be understated. The CDC reports that from 1900 to 1999, the average life expectancy of an individual living in the United States increased by 30 years. However, 25 of those years can be attributed to advances in public health. Not surprisingly, many schools risen to the challenge and offer programs designed to train individuals for careers in public health.
公共卫生领域很广，和几种不同的公共卫生事业存在的，如流行病学家，公关专家和健康教育，等等。亚博体育竞技竞猜亚博体育竞技投注平台 This page will take an in-depth look at the different public health degrees available and the potential careers available upon graduation.
公共卫生领域涉及广泛的学科，其中许多学科以科学、医学或统计学为基础。因此，高水平的教育是必要的。该 standard is a master’s level degree, usually the Master of Public Health (MPH) or Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH). For careers based strongly on research, a master’s degree will be a minimum, with a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) the ideal. However, an advanced degree is not necessary to work in some areas of public health. For example, health educators need a bachelor’s degree and community health workers may need only a high school diploma, certificate or associate degree.
虽然对公共卫生事业的要求可能会有所不同，这取决于职业，教育一定量将需要或推荐。亚博体育竞技投注平台 Here are the steps to making a public health career a reality.
学士学位是对一些公共卫生专业的最低限度。 Depending on the college, there may be either a Bachelor of Science or a Bachelor of Arts degree in public health offered. Either on should give students a broad educational background in public health, allowing them to choose a master’s program to fit their individual needs. Those who want to move on to higher degrees can start at the bachelor’s level by using their elective choices to specialize in what they intend to pursue at the graduate level.
公共卫生硕士学位(MPH)通常是一个专业的、以实践为基础的学位，帮助毕业生在地方、州、联邦甚至国际水平的各种公共卫生环境中担任领导角色。它可以是理科硕士或文科硕士。该 student will choose which of these to purse based on future career plans. This degree is necessary for many jobs; epidemiologists, advanced health educators and health survey researchers will need a master’s degree. The MPH and MSPH degrees are popular among those interested in an advanced public health degree.
如果想要获得博士学位，这一点尤其重要。公共卫生博士项目希望申请者具有相关工作经验。最理想的情况是，学生在获得学位的同时还能继续从事职前教育。没有t only does this work experience provide for more well-rounded graduates, it improves the learning outcomes, as students will have the experience and knowledge to put their learning into perspective. Be sure to choose work experience that aligns with your ultimate career goals. For example, someone who wants to work in epidemiology should find work experience that includes field work and research in this area.
有度几种可供选择，并且有几个可用的程度水平，太。 Which one is right for a particular situation depends upon many factors. A few of those potential scenarios are examined here.
|我是一名医学专家，但我已经在公共卫生只有一点点的正规教育。 I would like to get additional knowledge, but I’m not sure I want to get a master’s degree.|
|有些我只感兴趣的职位需要有2年的学位，所以我不知道，如果一个学士学位将是值得的。 However, I want the ability to get a bachelor’s degree if I change my mind.|
|我想工作在改善人民的健康在我身边。 I’m not totally convinced of a particular career path, but I want to keep my options open and make sure that if I decide to get a graduate degree, I’ll be ready.|
|我开始我的职业生涯在公众健康，但亚博体育竞技投注平台我希望把它带到一个新的水平。 I want to focus on the practice of improving public health, rather than teaching.|
该证书课程可以为那些谁需要公共卫生指令，但并不需要一个完整的程度是有用的。 The certificate typically takes less than six months to complete and is ideal for medical professionals who need a public health education. It’s also great for those who want to enhance their opportunities for promotions and advancement. As an added bonus, credits earned in a certificate program can be used toward an eventual master’s degree. Some classes a student may expect to take in a certificate program include:
对于那些谁想要开始在公共卫生尽快工作，副学士可能会感兴趣。 Not only can it be completed in about two years, it can prepare students to transfer to the bachelor’s degree, taking their credits along with them. The associate degree provides a foundation for a future career in health promotion, health education and disease prevention. Even though some programs offer concentrations within the public health associate degree program, core courses taken may include:
学士学位通常需要四年完成，并提供公共卫生学科的信息和培训的坚实和广阔的背景。 In addition to allowing for a well-rounded education due to general education credits, the bachelor’s degree serves as the basis for an entry level public health career or the first step in getting a graduate degree and working in a more advanced public health field.
许多公共健康计划提供公共卫生领域内的专业化机会。 Some options include public health delivery, healthy behavior and occupational and environmental health. Regardless of a concentration, students may expect to take some of the following courses:
对于那些谁想要领域内最好的职业选择，强烈建议硕士学位。亚博体育竞技投注平台 There are several master’s degrees available in public health, but the Master of Public Health (MPH) is the most common and takes about two years to complete. The MPH degree will not only provide additional knowledge and training on public health topics, it may also help prepare graduates for leadership and management roles within a public health organization or program. Some of the courses included in some MPH programs are listed below:
在公共卫生博士是一个终端学位，可以很容易接手四年完成。 While the path to a PhD may be long, it allows graduates some of the widest range of public health career possibilities. For example, advanced research methods will be regularly utilized in a PhD program, which will prepare students for analyzing and conducting high-level research. The PhD may also allow graduates to teach at the college or university level. Other doctorate degrees in public health exist, such as Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) which is more suited for leadership and professional practice compared to a PhD.
该疾病控制和预防中心定义了公众健康，“......保护，并通过促进健康的生活方式，疾病和伤害的预防和检测和控制传染病的研究，提高家庭和社区的健康的科学。” For anyone thinking about entering the public health profession, this also means there is a generous selection career options, each with its own education, training and work experience requirements. The list below outlines some of the most popular career choices in public health and what's needed to make them happen:
营养师和营养学家与客户一起评估他们的健康状况，并根据他们的发现，就饮食计划和吃什么食物提出建议，以克服特定的饮食相关问题和/或改善客户的整体健康。他们经常与医生和医护人员合作，为特定的病人制定营养计划和饮食限制。营养师s and Nutritionists work in a number of settings including hospitals, neighborhood clinics, assisted living facilities and in private practice. They may be directly involved in the monitoring or supervision of food service operations to ensure that they meet quality, safety and sanitation regulations and standards.
应急管理专家是指在突发事件或灾难事件发生前，负责准备培训和应急响应培训的规划，以及在突发事件或灾难事件期间协调危机管理和灾难响应的专业人员。应急管理专家s must have strong organizational and communication skills in order to manage and coordinate the efforts of emergency response teams that include firefighters, paramedics, police officers and others, as well as work effectively under pressure during disaster events. Additionally, Emergency Management Specialists must keep abreast of emergency preparedness programs and facilities, and ensure that all local, state and federal regulations concerning emergency preparedness are followed at all times.
卫生教育工作者和社区卫生工作者的主要职责是向社区内的个人传授有关卫生和健康问题的知识，以改善整体健康状况。公共卫生 Educators create and present education programs and events for their communities, provide training for health care workers and other health professionals, advocate for improved health resources and more. Community Health Workers must have a solid understanding of their community's unique health problems and issues in order to effectively counsel individuals about those concerns, as well as report their findings to health educators and professionals to better serve community health needs.
微生物学家研究那些小到肉眼无法看到的生物，以便更好地了解它们的本性、它们是如何生长的，以及它们是如何与其他生物(如人类)相互作用的。这些微生物以病毒、细菌、藻类、真菌和寄生虫的形式存在，其中许多可以传染给人类。微生物学家s working in the field of public health plan and conduct research on microorganisms aimed at developing drugs to fight infectious diseases. They are also employed in creating and developing genetically engineered crops and higher quality biofuels. In the course of their research, Microbiologists often work with scientists from a range of disciplines, as well as supervise the work of technicians and other staff members.
公共卫生护理是护理的一个专门区域是，这并不奇怪，专注于公众健康。 A Public Health Nurse works within a community to improve the overall health of its members. The emphasis is on understanding the unique needs of a discrete "community" as opposed to the individual patient. The community can be defined geographically, but also by non-geographical factors. Examples include, women, children, ethnic groups, as well as groups with a particular health issue, such as HIV/Aids. Public Health Nurses typically work for government agencies or large private health organizations, providing educational and advocacy services to at-risk individuals and groups.
社会及社区服务经理组织和监督社区和社会服务和保健方案。 In their supervisory capacity, Social and Community Service Managers recruit and train new staff members, and supervise staff and others who provide direct service to clients. They are also called upon to write funding proposals and prepare reports to provide evidence of justification for continued sponsorship of their programs. Social and Community Service Managers may work for government agencies, but most often are employed by non-profit organizations. Their work may involve a general demographic or be focused on a particular group such as children, seniors, the homeless, veterans or the handicapped.
虽然就业机会在公共卫生范围广，有许多由亚博体育竞技投注平台谁在公共卫生领域工作的所有个人所需的基本技能。 A solid list of skills categories for public health professionals has been developed by The Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice, a collaborative association of 20 national organizations whose aim is to "improve public health and training, practice, and research."
贴上了“核心竞争力公共卫生专业人员，“名单是由以下几种，或域，对每个在三层水平提出了具体的技能（非管理岗位;计划管理或监督角色;以及公共健康组织的高级管理层和领导者）以下。 is the list of those domains and a brief description of each:
本项技能包括：影响社区卫生因素说明; identifying and determining data and information for assessing community health; application of ethical standards in collecting, analyzing, using and disseminating data; use of information technology; selecting valid and reliable data; identifying gaps in data; and others.
这个标题下的技巧包括，除其他外，主要有：描述组织的战略计划; contributing to health improvement planning and the development of program goals and objectives; and applying, developing and implementing strategies for continuous quality improvement.
沟通技巧包括：识别服务的人口的语言技能; communicating in writing and orally with linguistic and cultural proficiency; soliciting input from individuals and organizations for improving community health; and suggesting, selecting and evaluating approaches for dissemination of public health data and information.
此技能包括能力：描述多样性的概念，因为它适用于个人和群体，以及方式的多样性可能影响政策，方案，服务和社区的健康; describe the value of a diverse public health workforce; and others.
技能包括，除其他外，能力：识别影响社区卫生的关系; suggest relationships that may need improvement; collaborate with community partners to improve community health; and collaborate in community-based participatory research.
在公共健康科学的技巧包括：讨论在卫生领域的科学基础; retrieving and synthesizing evidence to support decision making; describing and identifying the laws, regulations, policies and procedures for ethical conduct of research, and ensuring that conduct is carried out; developing partnerships that will increase the use of evidence in public health practice; and others.
这里的技巧包括：准备筹资建议; managing programs within current and projected budgets and staffing levels; motivating personnel to achieve program and organizational goals; and using employment management systems for program and organizational improvement.
领导力和思维能力的系统包括：结合实践的道德标准与个人，组织和社区的互动; collaborating with others in developing a vision of a healthy community; ensuring use of professional development opportunities by individuals and teams; and advocating for the role of public health in providing population health services.
鉴于公共卫生领域的广泛性，也有可使用的一些特定的公共卫生学科的众多专业认证。 One certification available to public health professionals in all areas of the field is the公共卫生认证（CPH）证书公共卫生考试全国委员会（NBPHE）提供。
有两个部分CPH资格审查：会议的资格要求，并通过了考试CPH; and maintaining certification through continuing education requirements every two years. A CPH candidate must meet one of the following four eligibility requirements:
技术无疑改变了世界，包括公共卫生服务的开发，管理和交付给患者的方式。 Here are just a few examples of the types of tools and technology commonly used in the field:
在公共卫生领域的薪酬变化显著取决于几个因素，如具体的公共卫生子领域，教育和经验要求的水平，等等。 Below is a look at some of the top occupations in public health along with their estimated median annual pay:
对公众健康的职业的就业前景变化显著取决于许多因素，包括教育水平和工作经验，地理位置，最重要的是，具体的职位。 For example, according to the美国劳工统计局，2012年和2022年之间的社区卫生工作者的就业增长预计将高达25％，远高于平均水平为所有职业11％。 On the flip side, job growth for Occupational Health and Safety Specialists for that same time period is estimated at only 7 percent.
公共卫生的范围广泛意味着专业的选择有相当数量和职称都可用。 Below is a look at five occupations that are related to public health:
除了公众健康保护伞下直接掉落无数的就业机会，有没有主要的公共卫生工作，但仍普遍与公共卫生相关的无数专业选项。 Here are a few potential public health career alternatives: