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公共卫生的重点是预防疾病和人类生活的整体改善。 Research makes it clear that the importance of public health cannot be understated. The CDC reports that from 1900 to 1999, the average life expectancy of an individual living in the United States increased by 30 years. However, 25 of those years can be attributed to advances in public health. Not surprisingly, many schools risen to the challenge and offer programs designed to train individuals for careers in public health.

公共卫生领域很广,和几种不同的公共卫生事业存在的,如流行病学家,公关专家和健康教育,等等。亚博体育竞技竞猜亚博体育竞技投注平台 This page will take an in-depth look at the different public health degrees available and the potential careers available upon graduation.

公共卫生职业概览亚博体育竞技竞猜亚博体育竞技投注平台

从事公共卫生工作的人员的共同目标是通过促进健康的生活方式、预防伤害和疾病以及控制传染病来改善个人和社会的健康。他们可能关心保护和改善一个小社区或整个地球的健康。公共卫生领域的工作职责包括从分析特定人群的卫生统计数据到查找疾病原因,从教育儿童正确的卫生习惯到组织公共服务运动。

深入公共卫生事业亚博体育竞技竞猜亚博体育竞技投注平台

公共卫生领域涉及广泛的学科,其中许多学科以科学、医学或统计学为基础。因此,高水平的教育是必要的。该 standard is a master’s level degree, usually the Master of Public Health (MPH) or Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH). For careers based strongly on research, a master’s degree will be a minimum, with a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) the ideal. However, an advanced degree is not necessary to work in some areas of public health. For example, health educators need a bachelor’s degree and community health workers may need only a high school diploma, certificate or associate degree.

步骤,以追求公共健康度及职业亚博体育竞技竞猜亚博体育竞技投注平台

虽然对公共卫生事业的要求可能会有所不同,这取决于职业,教育一定量将需要或推荐。亚博体育竞技投注平台 Here are the steps to making a public health career a reality.

1
获得公共卫生或相关专业的学士学位

学士学位是对一些公共卫生专业的最低限度。 Depending on the college, there may be either a Bachelor of Science or a Bachelor of Arts degree in public health offered. Either on should give students a broad educational background in public health, allowing them to choose a master’s program to fit their individual needs. Those who want to move on to higher degrees can start at the bachelor’s level by using their elective choices to specialize in what they intend to pursue at the graduate level.

2
获得公共卫生硕士学位

公共卫生硕士学位(MPH)通常是一个专业的、以实践为基础的学位,帮助毕业生在地方、州、联邦甚至国际水平的各种公共卫生环境中担任领导角色。它可以是理科硕士或文科硕士。该 student will choose which of these to purse based on future career plans. This degree is necessary for many jobs; epidemiologists, advanced health educators and health survey researchers will need a master’s degree. The MPH and MSPH degrees are popular among those interested in an advanced public health degree.

3
获得工作经验

如果想要获得博士学位,这一点尤其重要。公共卫生博士项目希望申请者具有相关工作经验。最理想的情况是,学生在获得学位的同时还能继续从事职前教育。没有t only does this work experience provide for more well-rounded graduates, it improves the learning outcomes, as students will have the experience and knowledge to put their learning into perspective. Be sure to choose work experience that aligns with your ultimate career goals. For example, someone who wants to work in epidemiology should find work experience that includes field work and research in this area.

4
攻读公共卫生博士学位

医学科学家、高级研究人员或学院或大学的教授几乎总是需要博士学位。根据不同的工作类型,学生需要决定攻读哪种博士学位。例如,博士学位更适合那些对教学或研究感兴趣的人。除此之外,学生通常会被要求选择一个重点。公共卫生博士学位的例子包括生物统计学、慢性病流行病学、环境卫生和卫生政策与管理。

公共卫生硕士水平

有度几种可供选择,并且有几个可用的程度水平,太。 Which one is right for a particular situation depends upon many factors. A few of those potential scenarios are examined here.

找到合适的公共卫生硕士课程

亚博体育竞技投注平台职业目标和教育需求 关联 本科 证书 硕士 博士学位 线上
我是一名医学专家,但我已经在公共卫生只有一点点的正规教育。 I would like to get additional knowledge, but I’m not sure I want to get a master’s degree.
有些我只感兴趣的职位需要有2年的学位,所以我不知道,如果一个学士学位将是值得的。 However, I want the ability to get a bachelor’s degree if I change my mind.
我想工作在改善人民的健康在我身边。 I’m not totally convinced of a particular career path, but I want to keep my options open and make sure that if I decide to get a graduate degree, I’ll be ready.
我开始我的职业生涯在公众健康,但亚博体育竞技投注平台我希望把它带到一个新的水平。 I want to focus on the practice of improving public health, rather than teaching.
我目前在医疗领域工作。我想参加一个公共健康项目,但我需要确保我仍然可以全职工作,并在我有空的时候上课,比如晚上和周末。
我喜欢医学研究。我的最终目标是从事公共卫生职业,分析统计数据,设计研究,找出如何让人们更健康。亚博体育竞技投注平台

证书及学位公共卫生

公共健康证

该证书课程可以为那些谁需要公共卫生指令,但并不需要一个完整的程度是有用的。 The certificate typically takes less than six months to complete and is ideal for medical professionals who need a public health education. It’s also great for those who want to enhance their opportunities for promotions and advancement. As an added bonus, credits earned in a certificate program can be used toward an eventual master’s degree. Some classes a student may expect to take in a certificate program include:

流行病学

本课程回顾人类群体中的疾病模式的基础知识。

获得的技能
  • 确定医疗数据的统计趋势
  • 如何将新发现应用于实际的卫生政策变化
  • 了解疾病研究的步骤,如起源和传播方法
美国医疗系统

学生将与医疗卫生系统在美国的概况,包括历史,当前运营和未来发展趋势呈现。

获得的技能
  • 熟悉医疗系统的定义和概念
  • 了解医疗政策及其对病人医疗护理的影响
  • 理解为什么特定的医疗程序和系统是以特定的方式建立的
公共卫生项目管理

对于公共健康计划的适当的运行管理和领导方法和原则被教这个班。

获得的技能
  • 如何监控公共卫生项目的有效性
  • 评估公共卫生项目效果的能力
  • 了解公共卫生领域常用的基于证据的决策方法

在公共卫生大专学位

对于那些谁想要开始在公共卫生尽快工作,副学士可能会感兴趣。 Not only can it be completed in about two years, it can prepare students to transfer to the bachelor’s degree, taking their credits along with them. The associate degree provides a foundation for a future career in health promotion, health education and disease prevention. Even though some programs offer concentrations within the public health associate degree program, core courses taken may include:

卫生社区服务

该发挥的公共卫生措施的成效作用的基本因素在这个类进行检查。

获得的技能
  • 对公共卫生项目中可能出现的伦理和道德问题的认识
  • 熟悉社会和文化对个人健康的影响
  • 了解人类行为与健康生活之间的关系
健康教育

本课程越过一个成功的健康教育项目和服务的基本原则。

获得的技能
  • 向公众提供健康资讯的传递方法
  • 理解学习行为
  • 识别与社区连接的不同交互策略
健康干预

参加此课程后,学生应准备通过一定的策略和方法,以改善公众健康。

获得的技能
  • 熟悉各种改善公共卫生的干预策略
  • 如何组织公共卫生行动
  • 了解与公众沟通的最有效的外展服务

学士学位公共卫生

学士学位通常需要四年完成,并提供公共卫生学科的信息和培训的坚实和广阔的背景。 In addition to allowing for a well-rounded education due to general education credits, the bachelor’s degree serves as the basis for an entry level public health career or the first step in getting a graduate degree and working in a more advanced public health field.

许多公共健康计划提供公共卫生领域内的专业化机会。 Some options include public health delivery, healthy behavior and occupational and environmental health. Regardless of a concentration, students may expect to take some of the following courses:

健康差距

本课程回顾了基于性别,种族,文化和其他因素不同人口群体之间的健康差异。

学到的技巧:
  • 识别特征的能力,可能意味着在一群人的健康差异
  • 了解影响健康的环境和文化因素
  • 在考虑人口特征后,应用不同的方法来改善健康
生物统计学

本课程教授学生理解统计学原理,以及它们如何应用到生物和医学领域。

学到的技巧:
  • 了解描述性统计和推理统计的区别
  • 如何使用统计软件解释数据
  • 方法验证数据的有效性和相关性
营养和公共卫生

饮食和营养,以及它们如何影响公众健康的作用被教导在这个类。

学到的技巧:
  • 熟悉公共卫生领域常见的营养问题
  • 了解营养和饮食对疾病和整体健康的影响
  • 了解饮食对人类发展的影响

硕士公共卫生

对于那些谁想要领域内最好的职业选择,强烈建议硕士学位。亚博体育竞技投注平台 There are several master’s degrees available in public health, but the Master of Public Health (MPH) is the most common and takes about two years to complete. The MPH degree will not only provide additional knowledge and training on public health topics, it may also help prepare graduates for leadership and management roles within a public health organization or program. Some of the courses included in some MPH programs are listed below:

公共卫生生物学

学生将学习有关解释疾病如何引起疾病,是传播和可以治疗的生物和生理过程。

学到的技巧:
  • 确定有助于制定治疗方案的疾病特征
  • 了解疾病如何工作才能更有效地找到预防疾病暴发的方法
  • 熟悉各种基于疾病特征的干预技术
公共卫生政策

这当然考虑各种公共卫生政策及其对解决公共健康问题的影响。

学到的技巧:
  • 如何解决卫生政策变化可能影响的公共卫生问题
  • 应用多种工具来评估政策的有效性
  • 了解重要的公共卫生政策以及可能需要做出哪些改变
健康与环境

环境对人体健康起着的作用在这个类进行检查。

学到的技巧:
  • 了解环境在人类健康和行为中的作用
  • 熟悉影响人体健康的各种化学和生物因素
  • 了解物理环境和疾病传播是如何相互关联的

博士学位公共卫生

在公共卫生博士是一个终端学位,可以很容易接手四年完成。 While the path to a PhD may be long, it allows graduates some of the widest range of public health career possibilities. For example, advanced research methods will be regularly utilized in a PhD program, which will prepare students for analyzing and conducting high-level research. The PhD may also allow graduates to teach at the college or university level. Other doctorate degrees in public health exist, such as Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) which is more suited for leadership and professional practice compared to a PhD.

不管哪一个获得博士学位,普通类博士生可以期望采取包括:

研究方法与设计

学生将接触到导通,解释,并在一个很高的水平设计的研究。

学到的技巧:
  • 知道何时使用不同类型的研究哲学
  • 熟悉定性、定量和混合方法的研究方法,有效地找到预防其暴发的方法
  • 了解如何将研究理论应用于现实世界的问题
健康信息

本课程将解决医疗用计算机信息系统。

学到的技巧:
  • 了解各类计算机信息技术及其在公共卫生方面的应用
  • 了解电子病历、健康信息交换和其他电子技术对医疗服务的影响
  • 预测未来技术趋势以及如何将其应用于公共卫生的能力
二级数据高级分析

这个类着眼于从辅助数据源的高级统计分析。

学到的技巧:
  • 了解如何有效地分析二手资料以获得有用的结论
  • 了解使用辅助数据的局限性
  • 熟悉在研究中使用辅助和生物医学数据

亚博体育竞技投注平台职业发展路径公共卫生

疾病控制和预防中心定义了公众健康,“......保护,并通过促进健康的生活方式,疾病和伤害的预防和检测和控制传染病的研究,提高家庭和社区的健康的科学。” For anyone thinking about entering the public health profession, this also means there is a generous selection career options, each with its own education, training and work experience requirements. The list below outlines some of the most popular career choices in public health and what's needed to make them happen:

营养师和营养学家

营养师和营养学家与客户一起评估他们的健康状况,并根据他们的发现,就饮食计划和吃什么食物提出建议,以克服特定的饮食相关问题和/或改善客户的整体健康。他们经常与医生和医护人员合作,为特定的病人制定营养计划和饮食限制。营养师s and Nutritionists work in a number of settings including hospitals, neighborhood clinics, assisted living facilities and in private practice. They may be directly involved in the monitoring or supervision of food service operations to ensure that they meet quality, safety and sanitation regulations and standards.

教育需求

大多数营养师和营养师职位都要求有营养学、营养学、食品服务管理或相关领域的学士学位。许多营养师和营养学家,尤其是那些希望晋升到主管职位的人,将继续获得更高的学位。此外,大多数州需要某种形式的许可证或认证。

应急管理专家

应急管理专家是指在突发事件或灾难事件发生前,负责准备培训和应急响应培训的规划,以及在突发事件或灾难事件期间协调危机管理和灾难响应的专业人员。应急管理专家s must have strong organizational and communication skills in order to manage and coordinate the efforts of emergency response teams that include firefighters, paramedics, police officers and others, as well as work effectively under pressure during disaster events. Additionally, Emergency Management Specialists must keep abreast of emergency preparedness programs and facilities, and ensure that all local, state and federal regulations concerning emergency preparedness are followed at all times.

教育需求

对紧急情况管理专家的教育要求可能因具体工作及其要求而有很大差别。然而,大多数职位要求有应急管理、公共安全或相关领域的学士学位,以及2至5年的应急管理经验。

流行病学家

流行病学家是研究和调查人类疾病,特别是传染病的原因和模式,以消除或减少其负面影响的专业人员。流行病学家对特定的公共卫生问题进行规划和研究,收集和分析数据,以确定疾病和其他健康相关问题的原因。流行病学家主要从事两个领域的工作:研究流行病学和应用流行病学。研究流行病学家通常为大学或与联邦机构(如疾控中心)有关的机构工作。应用流行病学家通常受雇于州和地方政府机构,通过教育项目和对相关公共卫生问题进行调查,直接与公众打交道。

教育需求

流行病学家必须获得流行病学、公共卫生或其他相关学科的硕士学位。对于那些目标是指导研究项目和/或在高等教育水平教书的人来说,通常需要博士学位。

卫生教育工作者和社区卫生工作者

卫生教育工作者和社区卫生工作者的主要职责是向社区内的个人传授有关卫生和健康问题的知识,以改善整体健康状况。公共卫生 Educators create and present education programs and events for their communities, provide training for health care workers and other health professionals, advocate for improved health resources and more. Community Health Workers must have a solid understanding of their community's unique health problems and issues in order to effectively counsel individuals about those concerns, as well as report their findings to health educators and professionals to better serve community health needs.

教育需求

作为一名健康教育将需要一个学士学位的健康教育和增进健康的程度。 Additionally, some employers require their employees to hold the Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) credential. Community Health Workers may find employment with just a high school diploma, but may also be required to attain some level of postsecondary education in a one-year certificate or two-year associate's degree program in the field.

微生物学家

微生物学家研究那些小到肉眼无法看到的生物,以便更好地了解它们的本性、它们是如何生长的,以及它们是如何与其他生物(如人类)相互作用的。这些微生物以病毒、细菌、藻类、真菌和寄生虫的形式存在,其中许多可以传染给人类。微生物学家s working in the field of public health plan and conduct research on microorganisms aimed at developing drugs to fight infectious diseases. They are also employed in creating and developing genetically engineered crops and higher quality biofuels. In the course of their research, Microbiologists often work with scientists from a range of disciplines, as well as supervise the work of technicians and other staff members.

教育需求

至少,一个潜在的微生物学家将需要获得学士学位的微生物学或密切相关的学科学位。 It is essential for bachelor's degree holders to have obtained a substantial amount of laboratory experience before seeking a job in the field. A graduate degree, specifically a Ph.D. with work in a specialized area of microbiology, will be required for anyone intending to conduct independent research at a college or university.

职业健康安全专家

职业健康和安全专家关注于识别和分析工作场所的健康和安全状况,最终目标是消除导致职业病和工伤的危害。工作任务包括职业健康和安全专家检查工作场所来决定遵守安全规章制度,设计和实现工作流程和过程旨在改善工作条件,调查事故和事件,以确定原因和找到解决方案,要阻止事故的发生和危害,并进行教育和培训项目对健康和安全应急准备等科目。

教育需求

学士学位的职业安全,职业健康,或相关领域,如生物或工程学位,通常需要就业作为职业健康和安全专家。 Some areas of the profession, such as health physics or industrial hygiene, may require a master's degree.

公共卫生护士

公共卫生护理是护理的一个专门区域是,这并不奇怪,专注于公众健康。 A Public Health Nurse works within a community to improve the overall health of its members. The emphasis is on understanding the unique needs of a discrete "community" as opposed to the individual patient. The community can be defined geographically, but also by non-geographical factors. Examples include, women, children, ethnic groups, as well as groups with a particular health issue, such as HIV/Aids. Public Health Nurses typically work for government agencies or large private health organizations, providing educational and advocacy services to at-risk individuals and groups.

教育需求

就业作为公共卫生护士通常需要成为一名注册护士,而这又需要完成的三条育路径之一:学士学位的护士学位; an associate's degree in nursing; or a diploma from an accredited nursing program. Becoming an RN additionally requires obtaining licensure.

社会及社区服务经理

社会及社区服务经理组织和监督社区和社会服务和保健方案。 In their supervisory capacity, Social and Community Service Managers recruit and train new staff members, and supervise staff and others who provide direct service to clients. They are also called upon to write funding proposals and prepare reports to provide evidence of justification for continued sponsorship of their programs. Social and Community Service Managers may work for government agencies, but most often are employed by non-profit organizations. Their work may involve a general demographic or be focused on a particular group such as children, seniors, the homeless, veterans or the handicapped.

教育需求

学士学位,在社会工作,公共管理或相关领域的学位一般是就业作为社会或社区服务管理的最低要求。 Some employers, especially larger governmental agencies or non-profit organizations, may require an MBA or master's degree in a public health or services-related field.

一个成功的公共健康事业的组成部分:技能,工具和技术亚博体育竞技投注平台

技能

虽然就业机会在公共卫生范围广,有许多由亚博体育竞技投注平台谁在公共卫生领域工作的所有个人所需的基本技能。 A solid list of skills categories for public health professionals has been developed by The Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice, a collaborative association of 20 national organizations whose aim is to "improve public health and training, practice, and research."

贴上了“核心竞争力公共卫生专业人员,“名单是由以下几种,或域,对每个在三层水平提出了具体的技能(非管理岗位;计划管理或监督角色;以及公共健康组织的高级管理层和领导者)以下。 is the list of those domains and a brief description of each:

分析/评估技能

本项技能包括:影响社区卫生因素说明; identifying and determining data and information for assessing community health; application of ethical standards in collecting, analyzing, using and disseminating data; use of information technology; selecting valid and reliable data; identifying gaps in data; and others.

政策发展/程序规划技能

这个标题下的技巧包括,除其他外,主要有:描述组织的战略计划; contributing to health improvement planning and the development of program goals and objectives; and applying, developing and implementing strategies for continuous quality improvement.

沟通技巧

沟通技巧包括:识别服务的人口的语言技能; communicating in writing and orally with linguistic and cultural proficiency; soliciting input from individuals and organizations for improving community health; and suggesting, selecting and evaluating approaches for dissemination of public health data and information.

文化能力技巧

此技能包括能力:描述多样性的概念,因为它适用于个人和群体,以及方式的多样性可能影响政策,方案,服务和社区的健康; describe the value of a diverse public health workforce; and others.

实践技能的社会维度

技能包括,除其他外,能力:识别影响社区卫生的关系; suggest relationships that may need improvement; collaborate with community partners to improve community health; and collaborate in community-based participatory research.

公共卫生科学技能

在公共健康科学的技巧包括:讨论在卫生领域的科学基础; retrieving and synthesizing evidence to support decision making; describing and identifying the laws, regulations, policies and procedures for ethical conduct of research, and ensuring that conduct is carried out; developing partnerships that will increase the use of evidence in public health practice; and others.

财务策划与管理专业

这里的技巧包括:准备筹资建议; managing programs within current and projected budgets and staffing levels; motivating personnel to achieve program and organizational goals; and using employment management systems for program and organizational improvement.

领导和系统思维技能

领导力和思维能力的系统包括:结合实践的道德标准与个人,组织和社区的互动; collaborating with others in developing a vision of a healthy community; ensuring use of professional development opportunities by individuals and teams; and advocating for the role of public health in providing population health services.

鉴于公共卫生领域的广泛性,也有可使用的一些特定的公共卫生学科的众多专业认证。 One certification available to public health professionals in all areas of the field is the公共卫生认证(CPH)证书公共卫生考试全国委员会(NBPHE)提供。

有两个部分CPH资格审查:会议的资格要求,并通过了考试CPH; and maintaining certification through continuing education requirements every two years. A CPH candidate must meet one of the following four eligibility requirements:

公共卫生教育委员会(CEPH)认可的公共卫生学校或项目的校友

经CEPH认证的公共卫生学院或项目的学生,已完成或目前正在注册研究生阶段的核心内容以获得研究生学位

获得学士学位并在公共卫生领域至少有五年工作经验的候选人

申请人必须在经中央健康研究中心认可的学校修毕指定的公共卫生相关科目的核心课程,并持有相关的研究生学位,但没有公共卫生工作经验

有各种各样的更具体的公共卫生相关领域提供的以及其它专业认证,包括以下内容:

工具和技术

技术无疑改变了世界,包括公共卫生服务的开发,管理和交付给患者的方式。 Here are just a few examples of the types of tools and technology commonly used in the field:

电子医疗记录

电子病历系统和联网的大规模使用使个人病历的可及性和准确性大大提高。

社交媒体

社交媒体平台为公共卫生机构和组织提供了全新而有效的方式,让公众获得一般信息和紧急警报。例如,美国疾病控制与预防中心运营着各种各样的Facebook页面和Twitter提要,标题包括疾病控制与预防中心紧急事件、疾病控制与预防中心无烟区、疾病控制与预防中心电子健康和疾病控制与预防中心西班牙语。其他机构,包括州和地方一级的机构也开发了紧急警报和其他公共卫生相关的应用程序。

移动应用程序

数字革命给我们带来了智能手机技术和成千上万的智能手机应用。与公共卫生相关的应用程序可分为两大类:消费者/普通公共应用程序和医疗服务提供商/临床医生应用程序。例如,FluView流感样疾病活动移动应用为公众提供了观察能力和跟踪流感活动遍及美国,而流感临床医生和卫生保健专业人员应用提供了CDC流感活动更新最新的建议和临床医生和其他卫生保健专业人员。这两个应用程序都是由CDC开发的。

公共卫生事业工资亚博体育竞技投注平台

在公共卫生领域的薪酬变化显著取决于几个因素,如具体的公共卫生子领域,教育和经验要求的水平,等等。 Below is a look at some of the top occupations in public health along with their estimated median annual pay:

$ 121,916 牙医
$ 77,580 业务连续性和应急管理总监
$ 64,245 流行病学家
$ 65,000个 公共健康分析师
$ 63,039 公共健康专家

来源:Payscale.com

就业成长前景,和Outlook公共卫生

对公众健康的职业的就业前景变化显著取决于许多因素,包括教育水平和工作经验,地理位置,最重要的是,具体的职位。 For example, according to the美国劳工统计局,2012年和2022年之间的社区卫生工作者的就业增长预计将高达25%,远高于平均水平为所有职业11%。 On the flip side, job growth for Occupational Health and Safety Specialists for that same time period is estimated at only 7 percent.

什么是相关职业做什么呢?

公共卫生的范围广泛意味着专业的选择有相当数量和职称都可用。 Below is a look at five occupations that are related to public health:

相关职业:你需要知道什么

除了公众健康保护伞下直接掉落无数的就业机会,有没有主要的公共卫生工作,但仍普遍与公共卫生相关的无数专业选项。 Here are a few potential public health career alternatives:

公共卫生学位与职业资源yabo5.conapp手机下载亚博体育竞技投注平台

美国公共卫生协会

APHA的首要目标是改善公共卫生。它通过引起公众对公共卫生问题的关注并为积极的公共卫生改革进行游说来做到这一点。

公共卫生实验室协会

APHL是一个以会员为基础的组织,它代表医学实验室的利益。

学校和公共卫生项目协会

ASPPH代表研究和教授公共卫生的学校和教育项目。

全国县市卫生官员协会

NACCHO由地方卫生部门组成,旨在促进公共卫生。

公共卫生教育学会

SOPHE是一个通过改善健康教育来促进公共健康的专业组织。